197.Mood is that form of a Verb which shows the manner in which the
action or state denoted by the Verb is presented to the mind.

198. Read the following sentences --

1) We go.Do we go?
2) If we were to go,we should regret it.
3) Go.

>) Here are three sentences in which the action signified by the Verb go is
presented to the mind in three different manners or Moods.

*) The sentence 1 makes a direct assertion or puts a question.The Mood
is Indicative.

*) The senetnce 2,'If we were to go', makes a statement,which is dependent
on,or subjoined to a principal statement,'we should regret it'.The Mood
of'were to go' is Subjunctive. Subjunctive expresses condition or
hypothesis. Piele remarks,'In the Subjunctive Mood the action is not
stated as a fact, though it maybe one,but as a conception of the mind.'

*) The sentence 3 makes a command or request.The Mood is Imperative.

So we have three Moods in English:--
1) Indicative. 2) Imperative. 3) Sunjunctive.

NOTE :- Modern grammarians do not regard the Infinite as a Mood,for it
'Merely names the action in an indefinite way,without reference to
the mode or manner'.

1) Indicative Mood
199. The Indicative Mood is used :--

1) To state a fact;as,
>) He did not do his lessons.
>) Ashok works hard.
>) Columbus discovered America.
>) A rolling stone gathers no moss.

2) To ask questions;as,
>) Have you learnt your lesson?
>) Is he ill?

3) To express a supposition which is regarded as a fact;as
>) If it rains [assuming it as a fact] , I shall not go out.
>) If he is guilty,the punishment is not severe.
[Assuming as a fact that he is guilty,etc.]

2. Imperative Mood
200. The Imperative Mood is used:--

1) To express a command;as,
>) Go away.
>) Don't make a noise.
>) Awake,arise,or be for ever fallen.

2) To express exhortation or advice;as,
>) Honour thy father and thy mother.
>) Go to the ant,thou sluggard.
>) Be punctual.
>) Never waste time.
>) Try to do better next time.

3) To express entreaty or prayer;as,
>) Have mercy upon us,O Lord!
>) May you always be happy!
>) Give us this day our daily bread.
>) Father,forgive them for they know not what they do.

4) Sometimes,to express a supposition;as,
>) Take care of the pence,and the pounds will take care of themselves.
[=If you take care of the pence,the pounds,etc.]
>) Move an inch an I'll shoot you. [ =If you move an inch,etc.]

NOTE :- The Imperative Mood is used only in the Second Person,the
Subject( you,ye,or thou) being usually omitted;as,
>) Come here. Present arms. Fire.

>) 'Let us go',' Let them be punished' are examples of command given to
First and third Persons with the help of let.

3) Subjective Mood

201. The Subjective Mood is used :-

1) To express a condition and its consequence;as,

Condition Consequence
>) If I were you, I would do it.
>) If he had met her, he would have recognized her.
>) If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.

NOTE :- The if,when followed by an Auxiliary ,can be left out;as

>) Had he moved his head, he would have been killed.
>) Should he meet me,he would recognize me at once.
>) Were she here,she would go with us.

2) To express a doubt or supposition;as,
>) If such were the case,he would return.
>) Though He slay me,yet I will trust in Him.
>) Whether I pass or fail,I shall appear in the examination.
>) Suppose she lose her way,waht will she do?

3) To express a wish or desire;as,
>) Thy kingdom come.
>) God save the Queen!
>) I wish I were a king.
>) O,that I were free!
>) I would I were a bird.
>) Long live the King.
>) I wish I were dead.
>) God be with you!

4) To express a purpose;as,
>) Work hard,that you may win the prize.
>) Love not sleep,lest you come to poverty.
>) We eat,that we may live.
>) Judge not,that yet be not judged.
>) He works hard,that he may succeed.

Exercise 56. Give the Mood of the verb in the following sentences :--

1) Never waste your time.
2) Have pity on them.
3) If I were you ,I would not do it.
4) Oh! that it were possible.
5) take care of your health.
6) Perhaps she may come have tomorrow.
7) I wish that she would forgive me.
8) If I were a King,you should be queen.
9) Mind your own business.
10) May you always be happy!
11) If he were here,he would help us.
12) Speak the truth.
13) Had I seen him,I would have told him.
14) I wish my father were here today.
15) Be good and you will be happy.
16) I wish I could fly.
17) Take care,that no mistake be made.
18) God be with you!
19) O that I were a bird!
20) Were she here,she would go with us.
21) Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader.
22) Is there a holiday tomorrow?
23) Dont' make a noise.
24) They did not do their duty.
25) Please forgive me this time.


202.Read the following sentences :--
1) He works hard.
2) He worked hard.
3) He will work hard.

*) In sentence 1, the Verb works refer to the present time,and is therefore,
said to be in the Present Tense, [The word tense means time.]

*) In sentence 2, the Verb worked refers to the past time,and is,therefore,
said to be in the Past tense.

*) In sentence 3, the Verb will work refers to the future time,and is,therefore,
said to be in the Future Tense.

>) So a verb has three main tenses;--
(1) the Present, (2) The Past,and (3) the Future.

203.Read the following sentences :--
1) I call.
2) I am calling.
3) I have called.
4) I have been calling.

All these four refer to the present time,and therefore are all in the Present Tense.
But there is a distinction in the way in which the action is regarded.

*) In sentence 1, the action is mentioned simply.There is no reference to the
completenessor incompleteness of the action.The Verb call is,therefore,said to
be in the Simple Present tense.

*) In sentence 2, the action is mentioned as incomplete,that is ,as still going on.
Hence the Verb am calling is said to be in the Present Continuous Tense.

*) In sentence 3, the action is mentioned as finished,complete,or perfect.Hence
the verb have called is said to be in the Present Perfect Tense.

*) In sentence 4, the action is mentiones as having been going on continuously,
but not at this present moment completed.Hence the Verb have been calling is
said to be in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

>) So the Present Tense has four forms :--

1) Simple Present.
2) Present Continuous.
3) Present Perfect.
4) Present Perfect Continuous.

204. Just as the Present Tense has four forms,the Past tense also has the
following four forms:--

1) I called. ( Simple Past)
2) I was calling. ( Past Continuous)
3) I had called. (Past perfect)
4) I had been calling. ( Past Perfect Continuous)

Similarly,the Future Tense has the following four forms :--

1) I shall call. (Simple Future)
2) I shall be calling. ( Future Continuous)
3) I shall have called. ( Future Perfect)
4) I shall have been calling. ( Future Perfect Continuous)

205. Study the following table of tenses of the Verb--'To call'.

(Active) I call. I am calling. I have called. I have been
(Passive) I am called. I am being called. I have been called. calling.

(Active) I called. I was calling. I had called. I had been
(Passive) I was called. I was being called. I had been calling. calling.

(Active) I shall call. I shall be calling. I shall have called. I shall have
(Passive) I shall be called. I shall have been called. calling.

NOTE:-Thus there are twelve Tenses in the Active Voice,and eight in the Passive.

Exercise 57. Write in brackets the number of the correct tense of the Verb in the following:--

1) The lamp has gone out.
(1. Simple Present 2. Simple Past [ ]
3. Present Perfect.)

2) He will have reached home by sunset.
( 1. Future Perfect. 2. Simple Past [ ]
3. Simple Present.)

3) The boat was sunk by a storm.
( 1. Simple past. 2. past Perfect [ ]
3. Simple Present.)

4) I have lived twenty years in Delhi.
( 1. Simple Present. 2. Past Perfect [ ]
3. Present Perfect.)

5) An aeroplane flies in the air.
( 1. Present Continuous 2.Simple Past [ ]
3. Simple Future.)

6) I have lost my fountain pen.
( 1. Simple past. 2. past Perfect [ ]
3. Present Perfect.)

7) They have been swimming since morning. [ ]
( 1. Present Perfect Continuous
2. Past Continuous.
3. Present Perfect.)

8) The birds will be building their nests then.
( 1. Present Perfect Continuous. [ ]
2. Future Continuous.
3. Future Perfect.

9) The rain shall have been falling heavily.
(1. Present Continuous. [ ]
2. Past Perfect.
3. Future Perfect Continuous.)

10) The wind had been blowing hard.
(1. Present Perfect. 2.Future Continuous
3. Past Perfect Continuous.)

Exercise 58. Change verbs to the Past tense in the fllowing sentences :--

1) I forget her name.
2) I know her father and mother.
3) She wears red shoes.
4) The guide knows the way.
5) The sun rises in the east.
6) He always speaks the truth.
7) She sweeps the floor daily.
8) She sings sweetly.
9) she never tells a lie.
10) She spins daily.
11) He spends his time in idleness.
12) The cock crows early in the morning.
13) She hides her face for shame.
14) Ashok swims very well indeed.
15) The peon rings the bell.
16) A portrait of Mahatma Gandhi hangs on the wall.
17) Birds build nests in trees.
18) She drinks tea after meals.
19) Birds fly in the air.
20) She lays her purse on the table.
21) We leave school at four o'clock.
22) The traveller lies down to rest.
23) The sun shines brightly.
24) I meet her everyday.

Exercise 59.Fill each blank with the Past tense of the verb in brackets :--

1) The parrot-----about the room. (fly)
2) The dog----on the floor. (lie)
3) She----her workbag on the table. (lay)
4) A mad dog----my servant. (bite)
5) The sun-----in the west. (set)
6) She----the afternoon at home.(spend)
7) The boy-----.(slip)
8) I----well last night.(sleep)
9) The sky-----dark.(grow)
10) His father-----last year.(die)
11) The soldiers-----bravely.(fight)
12) He----a grudge against his cousin.(bear)
13) A cold wind----last night.(blow)
14) The clock----six.(strike)
15) He----his parents in childhood.(lose)
16) The dust----in clouds.(rise)
17) This watch----me Rs.500.(cost)
18) She ----us good-bye.(bid)
19) He reaped what he------.(sow)
20) I-----her up on the telephone.(ring)
21) I-----a dozen mangoes yesterday.(buy)
22) The poor widow-----all her ornaments.(sell)
23) He----sorry for his faults.(feel)
24) The farmer----the cattle to the fields.(drive)
25) They-----Mr.Advani to be their leader.(choose)
26) He---cold water on my plan.(throw)
27) He----before the King.(kneel)
28) Someone----my watch.(steal)
29) She-----me ten rupees.(lend)
30) She----her fees yesterday.(pay)



206.The Simple Present is used :--

(1) To express what is actually now taking place;as,
>) Here comes the bride. (not,Here is coming)
>) There goes the bus. ( not,There is going)
>) See,how it rains!

(2) To express a habitual action;as,
>) He gets up early in the morning. [That is,He is in habit of getting up.etc.]
>) He takes exercise every morning.
>) I drink tea,but my sister prefers coffee.
>) She comes to school by bus.

(3) To express universal truths;as,
>) The soul is immortal.
>) The earth moves round the sun.
>) Rains falls from the clouds.
>) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
>) Death comes to everyone sooner or later.
>) The sun shines by day.

(4) To express a situation or a fact that is permanent;as,
>) Delhi stands on the Yamuna.(not, is standing)
>) My house faces east. ( not,is facing)
>) This road runs from Delhi to Calcutta. (not,is running)

(5) To express a future action,when the futurity is indicated by the context;as,
>) School starts again on January 2nd.
>) The college reopens next week.
>) He sails for England next Monday.
>) We leave by the 8.30 A.M . train.
>) The Governor arrives tomorrow morning and opens the exhibition in the

207. The Present Continuous is used to express an action going on at the time of speaking.
It is often associated with adverbs and adverb phrases of present time,such as now,
at present,at this moment,etc.

1) What are you doing now?
2) I am reading a book at present.
3) The boys are playing football.
4) Sita is dancing.
5) The bus is coming round the corner.

208. This tense is sometimes used to mark an action that will happen in the future;as

1) I am leaving for Delhi tomorrow.
2) They are going to London next year.
3) She is being married next week.
4) She is coming to see me next week.

209. The Present Perfect is used:--

1) To express an action that has just been completed ;as,
>) The sun has set.
>) The train has just arrived.
>) We have just finished the dinner.

2) To express a past action the results of which still continue;as,
>) I have lived in Bombay for ten years.
[It implies that the speaker is still living in Bombay.]
>) We have known each other for the past ten years.

3) To express a Future Perfect when such words as when,before,as soon as,till,after
are used before it;as,
>) I shall go there after I have done my lessons.
>) I will attend to this business as soon as I have finished my letter
[=as soon as I shall have finished].

210. The Present Perfect Continuous shows that the action that began in the past
is continuing up to the present time;as,
>) I have been working for two hours.

NOTE:--In the Present Perfect Continuous Tense,we use since to indicate point of time,
and for to indicate period of time;as,
>) Since morning, ..since last night,.. since Tuesday last,..since February last
Since 1947, ...since eight o'clcok,etc.
>) For a long time,...for two days,..for six months,...for five years,etc.

1) Bali has been reading this book since January last.
2) We have been living here since 1947.
3) Sita has been singing since morning.
4) He has been suffering from fever since Wednesday last.
5) We have been waiting for you since eight o'clock.
6) The boys have been playing football for three hours.
7) I have been waiting for you for half an hour.
8) Sami and Arsalan have been living in this town for the last ten years.
9) It has been raining for ten hours.
10) She has been staying with me for two weeks.

211. The Simple Past is used :--

(1) To express that something was done or took place in past time.It is usually
associated with adverbs and adverb phrases of past time,such as yesterday,
last week,month,year,,

>) I met him yesterday.
>) He failed last year.
>) He went out ten minutes ago.
>) He died in 1947.

(2) To express a habitual action in the past;as,
>) The Hindu widows burnt [=used to burn] themselves along with their

3) To express an action actually going on at the time stated;as,
>) While they bathed [=were bathing] we fished [=were fishing].

212. The Past Continuous means that the action was still going on in the past time referred to;as,

>) What was she doing when you called on her?
>) When I called on her,she was singing.
>) When we arrived they were having lunch.

213. The Past Perfect is used to denote an action which had been completed at some point in
the past time before another action was commenced ;as,

First action completed Second action took place
(Past Perfect) (Simple Past)

>) The train had left (Before) they reached the station.
>) The ship had sunk (before) help could reach her.
>) I had finished my work (when) Ali came to see me.
>) The patient had died (before) the doctor came.
>) The rain had stopped (when) she arrived.
>) He had been ill for two days ( when) the doctor was sent for.

214. The Past Perfect Continuous,'I had been writing' for an hour when you came to see me,'
shows that the action of writing 'had continued for a certain time previous to the point
of past time named.'

>) We had been waiting for you for two hours when you came.
>) He said that he had been living there since 1960.
>) I told him that I had been working had for the last four hours.

215. The Simple Future denotes an action that is about to take place or an action that
will take place in the future;as

>) I shall do it now ( at once,immediately).
>) I shall see you tomorrow.
>) We shall go there next week.
>) He will come here at six o'clock.

216. The Future Continuous denotes an action going on at some point in future time;as,
>) She will be singing then.

217. The Future Perfect denotes that an action will be completed at some point of time
in the future;as,

>) I shall have done my work before you come.
>) I shall have finished this exercise by ten o'clock.
>) You will have met your mother before I see you again.
>) Nobody will have taken anything from you when you go home this afternoon.
>) I hope you will have washed your face before you come into the school again.
>) We shall all have written something in our note-books by the time the
school finishes.
>) The play will have begun when you get to the theatre.
>) We shall have reached the station before the train starts.
>) You will have heard this news already.
>) They will have spent all their money by then.

218. The Future Perfect Continuous,'I shall have been writing', means that the action of
writing,whether finished or unfinished,'will have been in progress for some time'.

>) We shall have been playing for three hours when you come here.
>) They will have been making preparations for the marriage for two months.
>) I shall have been speaking to you for half an hour when this lesson ends.
>) You will have been studying English for two years by the end of this year.
>) Ashok will have been living in Jaipur for ten years by the end of this month.


219. The Simple Past is often used wrongly for the Present Perfect tense;as

Incorrect. I did not write the letter yet.
Correct. I have not written the letter yet.

Incorrect. I did not hear from her for a month.
Correct. I have not heard from her for a month.

Incorrect. I lived in Madras since 1962.
Corerct. I have lived in Madras since 1962.

220. The Present Perfect is often used wrongly for the Simple Past;as,

Incorrect. Columbus has discovered America.
Correct. Columbus discovered America.

Incorrect. The Mughals have won the battle of Panipat.
Corerct. The Mughals won the battle of panipat.

Incorrect. The servant has not come when called.
Corerct. The servant did not come when called.

221. The Present Perfect ,since it denotes present time,cannot be connected with an
adverb or any word that expresses past time generally or a definite point of
past time;as,

Incorrect. I have written a letter to him yesterday.
Correct. I wrote a letter t him yesterday.

Incorrect. A new theatre has been started last Tuesday.
Correct. A new theatre was started last tuesday.

Incorrect. I have finished my work last evening.
Correct. I finished my work last evening.

Incorrect. The old man has died of cold last night.
Corerct. The old man died of cold lat night.

Incorrect. A moment ago I have heard strange news.
Correct. A moment ago I heard strange news.

222. The Past Perfect is often used wrongly for the Simple Past;as,

Incorrect. I had written a letter to her yesterday.
Correct. I wrote a letter to her yesterday.

Incorrect. He had gone to Bombay last week.
Correct. He went to Bombay last week.

Incorrect. We had gone to the cinema last night.
Correct. We went to the cinema last night.

Incorrect. She had died in 1982.
Correct. She died in 1982.

223. The Simple past is often used wrongly for the Past Perfect;as,

Incorrect. The train left before we reached the station.
Corerct. The train had left before we reached the station.

Incorrect. The patient died before the doctor arrived.
Correct. The patient had died before the doctor arrived.

Incorrect. I finished my work before he came to see me.
Correct I had finished my work before he came to see me.

224. The Past Perfect or Perfect Continuous and not the Simple Past or Past Continuous,
is used to express something that continued up to a past time after beginning at a still
earlier time;as,

Incorrect. He told me that she was ill for six days.
Corerct. He told me that she had been ill for six days.

Incorrect. She was fasting for six weeks when the doctor came.
Correct. She had been fasting for six weeks when the doctor came.

225. The Simple Future is often used wrongly for the Future perfect;as,

Incorrect. He will reach home before the sun will set.
Corerct. He will have reached home before the sun sets.

Incorrect. I shall leave this place by the time she will come.
Correct. I shall have left this place by the time she comes.

Exercise 60. Correct the following sentences :--
1) The rain has stopped yesterday.
2) He had been born in 1950.
3) He is suffering from fever since last night.
4) Stephenson has invented the steam engine.
5) He will reach home before the storm will come.
6) I left Bihar before the earthquake occured.
7) She will reach the station before the train will go.
8) The great reformer had died in 1977.
9) I waited at home for her since 9 o'clock.
10) She finished her dinner when I saw her.
11) The servant has not answered when I called him.
12) The exhibition has been over a week ago.
13) I have seen my uncle last night.
14) The new hotel has been opened last Sunday.
15) He had gone to Madras last week.
16) I lived in Calcutta since 1960.
17) She died before her husband came.
18) In old times magicians were abusing their power.
19) I have written a letter to her last Monday.
20) I am reading Shakespeare fo the last six days.
21) We are working hard since last month.
22) Tagore has written Gitanjali.
23) I was reading his book for six days before you arrived.
24) When I finished my work,I shall take a rest.
25) The guest had left night.

Exercise 61. Select the correct form of the Verb shown in brackets in each sentence
and write it in the space opposite:--

1) He { a.went } to Delhi yesterday
{b. has gone } ( )

2) I {a. Am } working for two hours.
{b. have been } ( )

3) We shall serve you if you {a, came }
{b. will come} ( )

4) They had left before he {a. came }
{b. had come}. ( )

5) He {a. has told } me a story just now
{ b.told } ( )

6) The train {a. left } an hour ago.
{b. has left} ( )

7) I felt that I {a. shall } resign my post.
{b. should } ( )

8) Had I known you were coming I{a. would stay } at home.
{b. would have stayed} ( )

9) I had gone to school when he { a. came } to see me.
{b. had come} ( )

10) We shall play if the Headmaster {a.allows } us.
{b.allowed } ( )

11) I { a. am living } here for a month.
{ b. have been living} ( )

12) It{ raining } all night.
{b.has been raining} ( )

13) He {a. had visited }us last month.
{b. visted } ( )

14) He {a. died } last year.
{b. had died } ( )

15) The train had left before they {a.reached } the station
{b. had reached } ( )

16) I shall have finished my work before he{a. comes }
{b. had come } ( )

17) I had finished my work before Ali {a. came }to see me.
{b. had come } ( )

18) We {a. did not write } the letter yet.
{b. have not written} ( )

19) They {a. lived } in Delhi since 1952.
{b. have lived } ( )

20) Columbus {a. had discovered } America.
{b. discovered } ( )

21 I {a. have written } a letter to her yesterday
{b. wrote } ( )

22 We {a. had gone } to see the cinemas last night.
{b. went } ( )

23 He told me that she {a. was } ill for six weeks.
{b. had been } ( )

24 By this time tomorrow I {a. shall reach } home.
{b. shall have reached} ( )

25 I wish my brother {a. was } here.
{b. were } ( )

26. { a.was } I in his place,I should pay off the debt
{b. Were } ( )

Exercise 62.Select the clause which correctly completes the sentences:--

1. He had visited many towns before { a. he was returning home.
{ b. he had returned home.
{ c. he returned home.

2. You will have reached home before { a. the rain was setting in.
{ b. the rain sets in.
{ c. the rain has set in.

3. Three years have passed since { a. his father died.
{ b. his father had died.
{ c. his father died.

4. I had been reading this book for { a. she had arrived.
two weeks before { b. she arrived.
{ c. she has arrived.

5. The train had stopped when { a. we came out.
{ b. we had came out.
{ c. we would come out.

6. The servant had finished his work { a. I had called him.
when { b.I called him.
{ c. I have called him.

7. I shall have left this place by the time. { a.she will come.
{ b.she comes.
{ c. She has come.

8. I shall rest after { a. I will finish my work.
{b. I have finished my work.
{ c. I was finishing my work.

9. They will have reached the station { a. the train will start.
before { b. the train starts.
{ c.the train started.

10. I shall get a job before { a. the week will end.
{ b. the weeks ends.
{ c. the week had ended.

Exercise 63. Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of verbs given in brackets :-

1) He generally---Hindi,but he---English today. (speak)
2) The telephone bell---again.It sometimes---thirty times a day. (ring)
3) Ashok---his homework now.He usually---it at night.(do)
4) Mr.bali---too much.Every time I see him he---.(smoke)
5) My father---to his office everyday.He---there now.(drive)
6) It----hard now.It usually---in August.(rain)
7) I always---my umbrella,in case it rains.I---my umbrella,because it
look like rain.(carry)
8) Buses usually---along this road.No buses---today,because the drivers
are on strike.(run)
9) I---(watch) television whenever I can,but I----(not watch) television
tonight because there's nothing worth seeing.
10) They----in the library at present.They---there for over an hour.(work)
11) The bus-----at the corner now.It---there since midday.(wait)
12) As I---to school,I lost my pen.(go)
13) I found another I-----for the old one.(look)
14) I---to the zoo tomorrow.I---there nearly every weekend.(go)
15) I---English for the last two years,and now I---French too.(learn)
16) At present he------a biography;it is the third biography he-----this year.(read)
17) I---a strange-looking fellow yesterday.I don't think I--him before.(meet)
18) He generally----very well but today he----very badly.(play)
19) I---to Kashmir several times.I---there in 1974 and I---there again this year.(go)
20)"For how many years-----you---german?" " I---it for three years."(study)

Exercise 64.Rewrite these sentences,using the correct tenses of the verbs given in brackets:--

1) That man(teach) in this school since 1970.Before he(come) here,he(live) in
Delhi.Now he(live) in a village and(come) to school every day by train.
2) Her husband(not come) home yet.Last night,too,he(not come) home until after
3) She died after she(be) ill a long time.
4) I(not see) my friend for many years when I(meet) him last week.
5) Before we(go) very far,we found that we (lose) our way.
6) After I(hear) the news,I(hurry) to see her.
7) After they(leave),we (sit) down and(rest).
8) They (go) home after they(finish) their work.
9) We(hear) that a fire(break out) in the neighbouring house.
10) They (drink) small cups of coffee after they(finish) their supper.
11) The fire (spread) to the next house before the firemen (arrive).
12) You ought (bring) her straight home after she (fall) in the river.
13) He already (design) some important public buildings.Now he(prepare) the
plans for a new Five-Star Hotel.
14) I (expect) you(hear) how he(win) a gold medal for bravery.
15) My husband (not come) home yet.He never(come) home before midnight and
last night he(not come) till one o'clock.
16) "You(speak) my sister yesterday?" "No,I (not meet) her for a long time.
I cannot remember when I last(meet) her."
17) As she (run) to jump over the ditch,she (slip) and(twist) her ankle.We (have) to
carry her home.The doctor just(leave) and (say) as he(go) out that she(be) soon
all right.
18) When I (reach) the station,I (learn) taht the train (leave) ten minutes before.
The station-master(tell) me that the time-table(alter) the previous week.



226. A Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and person i.e, the Verb should
be of the same Number and Person as the Subject.

227. Two or more Singular Subjects joined by and take a Plural Verb;as,
1) Mohan and Sohan have passed.
2) He and his brother were absent.
3) He and I are great friends.
4) Time and tide wait for no man.

NOTE:--(1) Sometimes two Subjects are regarded as representing one idea,and
then the Verb is singular;as,
>) Slow and steady wins the race.
>) Bread and butter is a wholesome food.
>) 'Early to bed nad early to rise,Makes a man healthy,wealthy ,and wise.'

(2) If two Singular Nouns refer to the same person or thing,the verb must
>) The poet and philosopher is dead.
[Here 'poet' and 'philosopher' refer to the same person.]
>) The orator and statesman has arrived.

NOTE:--If the Article is used only once,then the two Nouns refer to the same
person,and the Verb used is Singular.But if the Article is mentioned
twice,then two distinct person are intended ,and the Verb following
must be in the Plural Number as,

>) The poet and the philosopher are dead.
>) The orator and the statesman have arrived.

228. If two Singular Nouns joined by and are preceded by each or every,the
verb is singular;as,
>) Each day and each hour brings us a fresh anxiety.
>) Every man and every woman in the village was terrified.

229. Two or more Singular Subjects connected by or, nor, either...or, neither...
nor,take a Singular Verb;as,
>) Either Mohan or Sohan is in the wrong.
>) Neither Sami nor his broter was present there.
>) Neither iron nor coal is to be found in that country.
>) Neither praise nor blame seems to affect her.
>) Any boy or girl sees it at once.

NOTE:--(1) When one of the Nouns or Pronouns joined by or,nor is in the
Singular and the other in the Plural ,the Verb should be Plural and the
Plural Subject should be placed near the Verb;as,
>) Saba or his brothers are to blame.
>) Neither Afzal nor his friends were present.

(2) If two Subjects joined by or,nor are of different persons,the Verb agrees
in person with the Subject nearest to it;as,
>) Either you of he is telling a lie.
>) Neither my brother nor I am happy.

But it is better to write as--
>) Either you are telling a lie,or he is.
>) Neither is my brother happy,nor am I.

230. If two Nouns are joined by with or as well as,the Verb agrees with the first Noun,
i.e., if the first Noun is Singular,the Verb must be Singular,even if the second Noun
is Plural;as,
>) Arsalan,as well as his friend,has won the prize.
>) Shifa as well as you has won the prize.
>) Iron as well as gold is found in India.
>) Kindness as well as mercy allows it.
>) The king,with all his ministers,was killed.

231. A Collective Noun takes a Singular or Plural Verb according to the sense.If the
Idea of oneness is expressed, the Verb must be singular;if the individuals of the
collection are thought of ,the Verb must be Plural.
>) The jury [=men of the jury] were divided in their opinions.
>) The jury [=one body] has elected its President.
>) The Council meets today in the Town Hall.
>) The Council that met in the Town Hall were divided.
>) There is a large number of girls in the class.
>) A large number of boys were caught copying.
>) A number of interesting suggestions have been made.
>) The majority were(was) in favour of the proposal.
>) The majority of people prefer watching games to playing games.
>) The police have not made any arrests.
>) The military were called out.

232. Either,neither,each,every one,many a must be followed by a Verb in the
>) Either of the two applicants is suitable.
>) Neither of the two applicants is suitable.
>) Each of these boys has done his best.
>) Each of these substances is found in India.
>) Every one of the boat's crew was drowned.
>) Many a man is tempted by gold.


233. Often the Verb is made to agree in Number with a Noun near it instead of
its proper Subject.This should be avoided.

1) The behaviour of the children were excellent.
[Here were must be was in order to agree with behaviour].
2) Not one of his lectures have ever been printed.
[ The Subject is one,not lectures;therefore,have should be has].
3) By that time two weeks' salary were due.
[ Here again,the Subject is salary,not weeks;therefore,were should be was].
4) The quality of the mangoes was(not were) good.
5) The cost of all these articles has( not have) risen.
6) A series of lectures has(not have) been arranged on the subject.
7) A variety of pleasing objects charms(not charm) the eye.

234. When a Plural Noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as
a whole,the Verb is generally Singular;as,
>) Two-thirds of the city is in ruins(not are).
>) A thousand rupees is a good sum(not are).
>) Four weeks is a good holiday(not are).

Similarly with titles of books and names of sciences:--
>) The Arabian Nights is an interesting book(not are).
>) The United States has a big army(not have).
>) Physics is an interesting science (not are).
>) Mathematics is a difficult subject(not are).

235. Some Nouns which are Plural in form,but Singular in meaning,take a Singular
>) The news is true.
>) The wages of sin is death.
>) Politics is a profession nowadays.

236. A Relative Pronoun always agrees in Number and Person with its Antecedent;as,
>) I,who am your friend,will help you.
>) You,who are my friend,should try to understand me.
>) He,who is my friend,should stand by me.
>) I am the woman who seeks(not seek) your help.
>) He is one of those men who know(not knows) everything.

Exercise 65. Correct the following sentences :--

1) The General as well as his staff were there.
2) Plucking flowers are forbidden.
3) Neither John nor James were present in the school yesterday.
4) The secretary and treasurer take a walk every morning.
5) The scholar and the poet is dead.
6) John as well as Tom are waiting for you.
7) Mohan with his friends were caught.
8) Every boy and every teacher have their own books.
9) The study of Mathematics require brains.
10) Every one of the men were punished.
11) Each boy and each girl were given a prize.
12) Neither of these questions appear difficult.
13) It is one of the best pictures that has ever been painted.
14) Lamb's Tales are an interesting book.
15) Game after game were played.
16) Bread and butter are his favourite food.
17) Patience as well as perseverance are necessary for success.
18) Neither Mohan nor Afzal have come.
19) I am a man who always help my friends in need.
20) The behaviour of the boys and girl's were highly objectionable.

Exercise 66.Select the corerct form of the verb shown in brackets in each sentence
and write it in the space opposite:--

1) He as well as you { a. is } intelligent.
{b. are}

2) Many a boy {a. was } present.

3) Bread and butter {a. were } his daily diet.
{b. was }

4) Either you or he { a. has} done it.
{ b. have}

5) One of the boys {a. was } punished.
{b. were }

6) Neither the children nor their mother {a. were } admitted.
{b. was }

7) All that glitters {a. is } not gold.
{ b. are}

8) Two and two {a. make } four.
{b. makes }

9) Mohan as well as his friend {a. is } guilty.
{b. are}

10) A hundered kilometres {a. is } a good distance.
{b. are }

11) The great poet and novelist {a . is } dead
{b. are }

12) Each of the boys {a. was } given a prize.
{b. were }

13) The quality of the mangoes {a. was } not good.
{ b. were }

14) Every boy and every girl {a. has } to join school
{b. have}

15) None but the children {a. was } admitted.
{ b. were}

16) Two thousand ruppes {a . is } a good sum.
{b. are }

17) Slow and steady {a. win } the race.
{b. wins}

18) A large number of women {a. was } present at the meeting.
{b. were}

19) More than forty boys {a. was } present in the meeting.
{b. were }

20) None but the brave {a. deserves } the fair.
{b. deserve }

21) Time and tide {a. waits } for no man.
{ b. wait }

22) A knowledge of modern languages {a. is } essential these days.
{b. are}

23) Three-fourths of the house {a. was } burnt to ashes.
{b. were}

24) The teacher as well as the boys {a . was } present.
{b. were}

25) The king with all his ministers {a. was } killed.
{b. were }

26) Either Rama or his brothers {a. is } at fault.
{b. are}

27) The accountant and the treasurer {a. has } absconded.
{b. have }

28) Not one of these five boys {a. was } present there.
{b. were}

29) Neither of the girls {a. has } brought her book.
{b. have }

30) Which one of these umbrellas {a. is } yours?
{b. are}

Exercise 67. In each of the following blanks put a Verb in agreement with
the Subject :--
1) The Lions of the east----an interesting book.
2) Mohan with his brothers and sisters ------present here.
3) No news ----good news.
4) The origin of Hindu manners and customs----unknown.
5) Neither James nor you--------present.
6) Either John or I----to blame.
7) Curry and rice-----his favourite food.
8) The committee----divided in their opinions.
9) The council----unanimous in its decision.
10) Mohan as well as Sohan---guilty.
11) The Chief with all his men----killed.
12) Each of his brothers and sisters----clever.
13) Neither of them---strong.
14) The quality of these mangoes---not good.
15) Every man.woman and child in the village----wounded.
16) He is one of the wisest and noblest kings that----ever lived.
17) A few hour's study---enough.
18) The house ,with its contents---was insured against fire.
19) Three parts of the business--in my hands.
20) Neither of the explanations---correct.


(Going to)

237. Going to is used to indicate:--

(1) Intention:
>) We are going to spend our holidays in Kashmir this year.
>) I'am going to reply to her letter.
>) We are going to plant some apple trees in our garden.
>) Are you going to learn French?
>) When are you going to take the examination?
>) They are going to grow more pulses this year.

(2) What is considered likely or probable;as,
>) Be careful! The ice is going to crack.
>) Is there going to be a business depression this year?
>) Look at those black clouds --we're going to have a storm.
>) How long is this shortage going to continue?
>) You'd be better take an umbrealla with you .It's going to rain
before evening.

(3) Future time when there is no reference to external conditions or
>) She is going to have a baby next week.
[= She will have a baby next week.]
>) I,m going to tell you a story.
[=I shall tell you a story.]

Exercise 68. Rewrite these sentences ,using 'going to'in place of the future
tense of the verb :--
1) We shall have three week's holiday this year.
(We are going to have three week's holiday this year.)
2) when will you visit delhi next?
3) We shall spend the summer holidays in Kashmir.
4) They say that there will be a big fair here tomorrow.
5) I shall drink a glass of lemon juice.
6) She will take examination next month.
7) Miss Sheila will sing for us now.
8) This house will be pulled down soon.
9) Shall you stay there long?
10) How many days will she be absent?
11) I shall write letters all the afternoon.
12) How much will you spend on your daughter's marriage.
13) Do you think she will marry him?
14) We shall leave by the 9.20 A.M. train.
15) Mr.Hill will make a speech on that question tomorrow.


238. There are three kinds of condition:

(1) Open condition,i.e., a condition which may or may not be fulfilled:

1) What shall we do if it rains?
2) I shall take an umbrella in case it rains.
3) He will not go provided the weather is fine.
4) If it rains,the match will not be played.
(it may rain,or it may not rain;we do not know.)
5) If I have time ,I shall visit the zoo.
6) If I have money,I shall buy a suitable present for you.
7) If I dropped the glass,it would be broken.

(2) Rejected condition,i.e.,a condition which might have been fulfilled,
but is not:

1) If I were't so busy,I would go to the station with you.
2) If I had time,I should visit the zoo.
3) She would come if she had time.

*) If the reference is to the past,we have constructions like these:
1) If I had not been so busy,I would have gone to the station with you.
2) If I had time,I should have visisted the zoo.
3) If she had worked harder,she would have passed the examination.
4) If I had known ,I would have told you.
5) If the monsoon had been good ,there would have been a good harvest.
6) If I had gone to Agra,I would have seen the Taj.

93) Imaginary condition,i.e., one which could be true.

1) If I were a bird,I would fly.
2) If I went to the moon,I would be a great man.
3) If I were you,I should post that letter at the main post office.
4) If I were a millionare,I would help the poor.
5) If you were the President,you would live in rashtrapathi Bhavan.
6) What would you do if you were attacked by a dacoit?
7) If Parliament were to pass a law forbidding the playing of loudspeakers,
how quite the street would be!
8) If he had all the wealth in the world,he would not be happy.
9) If you drank dirty water,you would be ill.

*) If the reference is to past time,were becomes had been and would/should
become would have/should have.
>) I should not have tolerated her rudeness,if I had been you.
>) What would you have done if you had been attacked by a dacoit?

239. Miscellaneous Examples of Condition

(1) Condition ,Inversion of Subject and Finite verb.
>) Were she to see you(=If she were to see you),she would be surprised.
>) Were I alone,I should be afraid to go.
>) Were she living in our neighbourhood,I should see her more often.
>) Had I known,I should never have gone there.
>) Had I taken her temperature,I should have known that she had fever.

(2) Condition implying fortuitous circumstances.
>) If you should(happen to) meet him,tell him all about it.
>) Should you( happen to) meet him tomorrow,would you mind telling
him all about it?
>) If I should(happen to) find the pen later,I will let you have it.
>) Should I(happen to) find the pen later,I will let you have it.
>) If I should not happen to be there in time,please start without me.

Exercise 69. Fill in the blanks with the corerct forms of Verbs given in brackets:-

1) If you had bought this house last year it would have cost you much less
than now. (buy)
2) You---unless you had taken my advice.(not succeed)
3) I-----the more money if I had more.(give)
4) If it-----,the sports meeting will be postponed.(rain)
5) If an accident----,you should report it at once to the police.(happen)
6) If it had not been so stormy,we---the top of the mountain.(reach)
7) If he----harder he would have failed.(not work)
8) We----the train unless we hurry.(miss)
9) If you----a mistake,you should correct it.(make)
10) If I sent the letter on Wednesday,he----it on Friday.(get)
11) If you----louder,we should hear you better.(speak)
12) I---her more money if I had more.(give)
13) If only we----two minutes earlier,we should have caught the train.(leave)
14) If I----her address,I would have called on her.(know)
15) I----her rudeness,if I had been you.(not tolerate)
16) If he---a little more careful,the accident would not have happened.(be)
17) If I had time,I----the exhibition.(visit)
18) If he---of your marriage,he would have been surprised.(hear)
19) If he had not been so tired,I----for a walk with you.(go)
20) If you had asked me to do it,I----it.(do)

Exercise 70.Select the correct verb :--

1) If you were the Prime Minister,you {a.will live.
in Delhi {b. would live.
{c.would have lived.

2) Were she to see you,she { a. will be surprised.
{ b. would be surprised.
{ c. would have been surprised.

3) Had I saved money,I { a. will purchase
a new car. { b. would purchase
{ c. would have purchased

4) If you had been at the meeting,I { a. shall see you.
{ b. should see you.
{ c. should have seen you.

5) What would you have done if you { a. missed
the train? { b. had missed
{ c. would have missed

6) If I were younger.I {a.studied.
languages. {b. would study
{c. would have studied

7) Your suit would look better if you {a.wear
a red tie. {b.wore
{c.had worn

8) I would have helped you if you {a.had asked
me to. { b. would ask
{c.would have asked

9) If you {a.did not tell
me about it I should never known the facts. {b.had not told
{c.would not have told

10) I { a. would have lunch if I hadn't been in such a hurry.
{ b. would have had
{c.will have

11) If I {a.weren,t so tired,I would have gone with you.
{b. had not been
{c.wouldn't be

12) If the weather {a.were better,we would have enjoyed the trip more.
{b.had been

13) I {a.had caught the train if I had reached the station five
{b.would have caught minutes earlier.
{c.should catch

14) If I had been a millionaire,I {a.would help the poor.
{b.had help
{c.would have helped

15) She would never have pardoned him if he {a.did not apoligize.
{b.had not apologized.
{c.would not have apologized.
at 2:25 AM P
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